Sep 1, 2016

Memory Care, Experimental Drug Removes Plaques in Alzheimer's Patients

An experimental drug, in an early stage study, has removed plaques in the brains of patients with early-stage Alzheimer's disease.

Alzheimer's Care and Dementia Care for patients

By Alzheimer's Reading Room

This finding of this study are fascinating; and, points out the need for greater participation by caregivers and their loved one's in clinical trials of experimental drugs for the treatment and cure of Alzheimer's disease.

The findings showed that some patients who received the drug experiences less cognitive decline than those who received the placebo.

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Researchers have now been able to show that Aducanumab, a human monoclonal antibody, selectively binds brain amyloid plaques, thus enabling microglial cells to remove the plaques.

A one-year treatment with the antibody, as part of a phase Ib study, resulted in almost complete clearance of the brain amyloid plaques in the study group patients.

The results, which were realized by researchers at UZH together with the biotech company Biogen and the UZH spin-off  Neurimmune, have been published in the renowned science journal "Nature."

Reduction of brain amyloid plaque is dependent on treatment duration and dosage

"The results of this clinical study make us optimistic that we can potentially make a great step forward in treating Alzheimer's disease. The effect of the antibody is very impressive. And the outcome is dependent on the dosage and length of treatment." - Roger M. Nitsch, professor at the Institute for Regenerative Medicine at UZH.
  • After one year of treatment, practically no beta-amyloid plaques could be detected in the patients who received the highest dose of the antibody.
The antibody was developed with the help of a technology platform from "Neurimmune."

Using blood collected from elderly persons aged up to one hundred and demonstrating no cognitive impairment, the researchers isolated precisely those immune cells whose antibodies are able to identify toxic beta-amyloid plaques but not the amyloid precursor protein that is present throughout the human body and that presumably plays an important role in the growth of nerve cells.

Investigational treatment also curbs cognitive decline
  • 165 patients with early-stage Alzheimer's disease were treated in the phase 1b clinical trial.
  • Although not initially planned as a primary study objective, the good results encouraged researchers to additionally investigate how the treatment affected the symptoms of disease.
  • This was evaluated via standardized questionnaires to assess the cognitive abilities and everyday activities of the patients.
"Aducanumab also showed positive effects on clinical symptoms. While patients in the placebo group exhibited significant cognitive decline, cognitive ability remained distinctly more stable in patients receiving the antibody."

Some of the trial participants temporarily suffered from amyloid-related imaging abnormality (ARIA), an adverse effect that can be detected via magnetic resonance imaging.

In a minority of cases, this was accompanied by temporary mild to moderate headaches.

The UZH researchers believe that ARIA is a measurable biological effect of amyloid clearance.

The promising effects of Aducanumab are currently being investigated in two large phase three clinical studies to further evaluate safety and efficacy.

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